What is forensic DNA and serology?

In the forensic crime laboratory, “serology analysis” refers to the screening of evidence for bodily fluids, whereas “DNA analysis” refers to the efforts to individualize bodily fluids to a specific person. In most cases, bodily fluid identification is performed on evidentiary items before DNA analysis is attempted.

What is forensic serology used for?

“Forensic serology is the branch of forensic sciences dealing with identification and characterization of biological, evidentiary samples — such as blood, semen, saliva, sweat, breast milk and any other bodily fluids,” says Professor Sebetan.

What is the difference between forensic biology and forensic serology?

In fact, in many laboratories they are included within the same unit, collectively titled Forensic Biology. In the forensic laboratory, serology analysis refers to the screening of evidence for body fluids while DNA analysis refers to the efforts to individualize body fluids to a specific person.

How does forensic serology work?

The Forensic Serology Section is primarily responsible for the detection and identification of biological material (i.e., blood, semen, saliva, and urine) on physical evidence in order to: Link suspect(s) and victim(s) to each other and/or to the scene(s) Include or exclude potential suspect(s) or victim(s)

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What is forensic nuclear DNA testing?

Nuclear DNA (nDNA) is the most discriminating and is typically analyzed in evidence containing body fluids, skin cells, bones, and hairs that have tissue at their root ends. … Y-chromosome DNA testing is a form of nuclear DNA testing that is specific to the male chromosome, also known as the Y-chromosome.

What is serology typing?

Forensic serology is the application of the study of blood, semen, saliva and other body fluids, to legal matters. The field generally is comprised of the detection of enzymes and antigens, as in the identification of seminal stains or blood typing (ABO and secretor status) and DNA typing.

What are the main job functions of a forensic serologist?

Determination of the type and characteristics of blood, blood testing, bloodstain examination, and preparation of testimony or presentations at trial are the main job functions of a forensic serologist, who also analyzes semen, saliva, other body fluids and may or may not be involved with DNA typing.

Who is father of serology?

The bacteriologic theory of disease developed late in the 19th century by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch provided the final clue to understanding many disease processes.

How is blood useful in forensics?

Forensic scientists often use techniques to identify blood types (blood typing) because an individual’s blood type isn’t affected by disease, drugs, climate, occupation, living conditions, or any other physical circumstances. Additionally, scientists use blood-typing to determine paternity.

How do you become a forensic serologist?

Forensic serologists need at least an undergraduate degree in biology, preferably with additional coursework in math and criminal investigation. Some law enforcement agencies may require advanced degrees as well, either in biology or in forensic science or criminal justice.

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How long does it take to become a forensic serologist?

To become a Forensic Scientist, one must possess at least a 4-year bachelor’s degree in Forensic Sciences or related field with the relevant work experience of 1 to 2 years. If you intend to go for further qualifications, a professional certification takes about 1 year or more.

How can you tell if blood is from a human or animal?

Current Test: DNA. However, DNA is not considered a confirmatory test for blood, semen or saliva. How it works: The Ouchterlony test is used to determine if a blood sample is human or animal through the comparison of its reactions to specific antibodies.

What is forensic technology?

1. A technology used for investigation and identification of facts surrounding a crime, sometimes using carbon related chemicals around the crime scene.

Can two people have the same nuclear DNA?

In theory, no two persons, except for identical twins, have the same DNA sequence. However, with the DNA markers that are currently in use, a unique identification cannot be assured.

Is nuclear DNA the same as DNA?

Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.

Is nuclear DNA used in forensics?

Forensic departments such as the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) are able to use techniques involving nuclear DNA to compare samples in a case.

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