Best answer: What are the types of fracture in criminology?

When a projectile i.e. a bullet or rock hits the glass, it will form two distinct types of fractures: Radial and Concentric. There is another terminology that is known as cone fracture, observed to be caused by a penetration of the high velocity projectile such as a bullet.

What are forensic fractures?

In the forensic science community, study of glass fractures has focused on reconstruction of the fracture mechanism by observing the presence of Wallner lines (arcing lines on the fracture surfaces) and Hackle marks (marks are parallel with stair-step structures) as well as the overall fracture patterns defined by …

What are radial and concentric fractures?

Concentric cracks are fractures forming in an approximately circular pattern around the point of impact. … Radial cracks are fractures extending outward from the point of impact.

What is concentric fracture?

Concentric Fracture – A crack in a glass that forms a rough circle. … When it penetrates glass, a high-velocity projectile such as a bullet often leaves a round, crater-shaped hole that is surrounded by a nearly symmetrical pattern of radial and concentric cracks.

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What is the difference between a radial fracture and a concentric fracture?

A radial fracture is the first fracture that forms on the surface opposite that of the penetrating force, concentric fractures are formed by the continued motion of the force which places tension on the front of the surface and encircle the hole.

What is the 3R rule for glass fractures?

The 3R rule states that Radial cracks form a Right angle on the Reverse side of the force. This rule enables an examiner to determine readily the side on which a window or pane of glass was broken.

What is a fracture match?

When an object has been torn, broken, or separated, one piece of it has the potential to match another piece of it when they are placed next to one another. In forensic investigations this is called fracture matching.

What technologies are used to analyze glass?

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) : When broken glass is involved in a crime, putting together even tiny pieces can be key to finding important clues like the direction of bullets, the force of impact or the type of weapon used in a crime.

What are the two most often used methods of glass analysis?

The flotation and immersion methods are best used to determine a glass fragment’s density and refractive index, respectively.

How Can glass be used as evidence?

Glass – Glass can be used to gather evidence, for example collecting fingerprints or blood from a broken window; however, glass also has a place in the trace evidence section. … Gathering glass fragments from a crime scene can be valuable in determining end-use or connecting people and objects to places.

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Which comes first radial or concentric fractures?

You can see how the glass is stretched. This stretching causes the concentric fractures. Radial fractures occur first on side OPPOSITE the force. Concentric fractures occur second on SAME side as force.

What are the 2 types of glass fractures cracks?

When a projectile i.e. a bullet or rock hits the glass, it will form two distinct types of fractures: Radial and Concentric. There is another terminology that is known as cone fracture, observed to be caused by a penetration of the high velocity projectile such as a bullet.

Which glass fracture comes first?

The method used to establish this is the 4R Rule: Ridge lines on Radial fractures are at Right angles to the Rear. The first step in this method is to find radial fractures that are within the first concentric fracture. Radial fractures are similar to the spokes of a wheel.

What is radial fracture?

When the radius breaks near the wrist, it is called a distal radius fracture. The break usually happens due to falling on an outstretched or flexed hand. It can also happen in a car accident, a bike accident, a skiing accident or another sports activity.

What are fracture patterns in glass?

The crack patterns that develop during glass fracture are visible as the traces of the crack or cracks that intersect a surface or a plane such as the y–z plane which is orthogonal to the glass fracture surface x–y plane.

What is the main ingredient in ordinary glass?

Final questions

Question Answer
what is the main ingredient in ordinary glass sand
Tempered glass is used in the side and rear windows of autos manufactured in the United States
Flotation is a method used by scientists to determine the ____ of a particle of glass density
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